tv Charlie Rose Bloomberg September 2, 2014 8:00pm-9:01pm EDT
now before our people. are the american people fit to govern themselves, to rule themselves, to control themselves? i believe they are. historian, an author, so much more. her books have wrought to live so many amazing people. when did they first meet? taft as solicitor general. they lived in the same part of washington. they walked together to work. i love that image, taft listening to teddy. >> what's the difference and the sizes? >> taft would have been at a slimmer level 250 to 270. is five foot nine inches but taft is closer to six feet
tall. they would have looked shorter. >> what happened to the friendship? makes taft his hand-picked successor when he was not running again. he gives him all the advice in the world. don't play golf. it's a rich man's game. fight. don't just answer him. >> william jennings bryan? taft wins.happy when he trusts him with his legacy calling him a beloved person. he goes to africa and give him space. his progressive friends say taft has not been as honest to the legacy. he is cozying up to the regulars who he needed he thought to get the tariff bill through. he did not know how to be a public leader and he screwed up the things you try to do to the phil has legacy. teddy mrs. being president and
the progressives want him back. -- teddy misses being president. >> and he splits the votes. >> they get more than 50% of the vote together but they lit and the democrat wins. >> that's the way history happens. more about the friendship. one like the public eye. taft was much more cerebral, would you say? >> deliberative would be a better word. part of it is up since attracting. teddy was so outdoorsy. taft except for golf hardly wanted to walk. over rocks and mountains and he would just stay home. they shared from early on, they were like new reformers. in the early corrupt age of the
early gilded age, they both wanted to see politics out of civil service. they wanted to see regulation of government and they were considered new man. that is what they shared against the establishment of the republican party. >> it's often said he presided over a transition in american public life. a teddy roosevelt, nothing had really been done to help the social and economic problems of the industrial age. you had this gap. the echoes come back. the middle class is being squeezed out. you have monopolies that are forming and not doing fairly by people and you have tenants and slums. they thought that government had nothing to do with that and it interfered in the economy so he begins to have the modern presidency as the steward of the people and he forces through public pressure to get congress through the first regulation of
, labor, antitrust suits. it's the modern regulatory world. >> and you find correlation to today's world. the digital age. really incredible. what happens in the 1900s because of the inventions, the telephone, the telegraph, everything is speeded up. to talk about nervous disorders because the pace of life is so much bigger than it used to be. you're not writing letters and you have moved from the country to the city. then you think about it today. if that was considered speeded up, the internet has sped up our lives exponentially. >> there was also the basic question, what is the role of government? >> it was debated philosophical event. laissez-faire, the belief that the government should not interfere was held in almost a
religious fervor. the overwhelming majority of the people in politics and the country believed you would hurt the prosperous economy if you got too involved in any way area that is why teddy has to use the bully pulpit, the word he defined, the platform, to educate the country as to why government had to be important in their lives. it's a big deal. >> he was the first person to use the elite pulpit of the white house. >> he loved reporters. if you are running around then as a tv, radio, print thy and he was having his our shaving, you would be in there trying to take victors. -- pictures. >> he never feared the press. he thought they were necessary. >> he was a writer or so he respected them. he knew as long as he could criticism, he could
argue with them. they could argue with him in print saying he did something instead of breaking the friendship, he kept going. that's the unusual thing. ist i think history about your ease. here, i'm telling a series of stories about taft and teddy, ida tarbell. there's another great journalist . she makes another decision as a young woman. at 14, she prays that she will never get married because she sees the frustration of her mother with talent to do something. she becomes the most famous journalist of her era. think about that for women today. we can have those things together that no one of these three women thought they could have. son was thinking about your who you are so proud of. >> we were here together. >> i remember. then there was the
campaign. was it mean? >> the only way he could justify was to really exaggerate what taft had done. he came to believe that taft had betrayed him. he called it a fat head with a guinea pig brain. taft thinking teddy running for a third term in going after this radical proposal said the country of they did not like the court incision by popular recall could recall the decision, for taft did -- judicial, that was way over the edge. they were really mean to each other. hen taft was mean to teddy, hated the fight. what makes a good ending as i felt had wondering what could've happened to the two thof them after 1912. people try to bring them itether in 1914 and 1916 but
was like an armed neutrality. very coldly. finally in 1918, the year before teddy dies, he's in the hospital with an illness that taft once had. he wrote him a note saying it was painful. they still had not seen each other. in 1919, months before teddy i'm sorry, 1918. taft goes to the blackstone hotel in chicago and he's going up in the elevator and he says, mr. roosevelt is in the dining room eating alone. he says to take me back home. there is a reporter there, thank god, to record this. there are 100 diners there. he goes over to teddy. throws his arm around him. teddy says to sit down and the entire restaurant collapse. they know this means the friendship has come together. says, thank god this
happened. i'm so glad we are friends again. later hesome months dies and taft is an honored guest at the funeral and he says to his sister, i don't know what i would have done if we had not come back together again. i would have mourned at all my life. it is so special. >> what happened to taft? >> he wanted to be a justice on the supreme court. teddy offers it to him three times. twice ease in the philippines and he thinks he cannot leave his duty. the third time is already a candidate for president. finally in 1921 he gets appointed supreme court chief justice. the last decade of his life, he says it's the happiest day of his life. >> at what age? >> he would have been in his 60's. is there for almost a decade until he dies and the incredible thing about his weight is a goes up and down depending on his happiness. yale,50 again, happy at
then 350. then he did not need to be down because he had the robe. his father was a judge. he loved being a judge. he meant it if he said it had not been for my wife i still would have been a judge in cincinnati. he got the seo world and his kids could always say their father had been president. i don't think he regretted it but he was very happy. >> how many presidents have we had that have become chief justice's? >> charles evans hughes had denied justice and ran for president but he lost. pulpit, teddy roosevelt, william howard taft, and the bully pulpit." conflicted with a moral issue. it is clear as the american
constitution. the heart of the question is whether all americans ought to be afforded equal rights and equal opportunities whether we are going to treat our fellow americans as we want to be treated. end now our differences, at least we can help the world see the final analysis of our most basic common link that we all inhabit the same planet, we breathe the same air, we cherish our children. been 50 years since president john f. kennedy was assassinated in dallas. joining me to discuss this man and his presidency, his legacy, robert dallek, a presidential historian and the author of "camelot court." his previous book, an unfinished life. lecturer and he
also wrote a kennedy book called, a profile of power. and jeff joins us, a political analyst and author of a new book, if kennedy lived. and jill abramson, the executive editor of "the new york times." that'swritten a piece gotten a lot of attention called an elusive president. and from washington, a presidential historian and regular contributor to nbc news. i'm pleased to have them all here this evening to reflect on president john f. kennedy. thatedless to say the fact he was taken the way he did at the age of 46 adds to the drama. inwould not be interested
this. the first comprehensive civil rights bill to congress saying everyone could use hotels, restaurants, other public leases, he interacts with the big issue domestically in a way that they had not. i would want him as the president because he was able to guide us through it and if in retrospect can you imagine if he was not able to do it and tend then millions of people had lost their lives as a result of these cuban missiles? he's ag other things cultural icon as well. the politics of the day, which we all know, is not everything the american people and new but the kennedys taught us how to be a rich country, how to dress, how to think about high culture. i think that lives on beyond
political events. whatople do not remember residents do. woodrow wilson did with the federal reserve. do they even remember roosevelt and social security? theve the antidote about guy who said he did not want the government messing with his medicare. what they remember is rhetoric. kennedy ask not what your country can do for you. the pride is back. i think they make connections in television. it is enormously important. if he were alive, he would be 96. >> a also had a little bit
easier than later presidents. when jeff was watching those press conferences in the afternoon, there were three networks. the pressovered conferences? when he gave the cuban missile of thespeech, 90% country was watching. the president's voice in those days was so much louder and now it's almost impossible for president to do that no matter how good the rhetoric is. you said moore was not known about his health. one of the undiscovered large issues of american history. >> it was a cover-up. me he did notld know that much about his brother's health until he read my book because that's how hidden the whole darn thing was. serious at meas because he's the one who signed off. it was a three-person committee. he let me into the medical records.
he was angry at me. he said there was no cover-up. bobby knew about the amphetamines and about dr. feel good. most people did not know. it's not just a cover-up though. dallek'snished mr. fantastic biography and realized the breadth of the health problems it makes you see kennedy and a more heraldic life. >> how bad was the health? it was very bad. dayss hospitalized for 44 a number of times in the late 1950's. >> given the last rites a few times? >> three times. >> a number of physicians i
spoke to told me they don't know if he would have lived that much longer or well into his 50's. the day after he was elected, there was a press conference and someone asked the bobby kennedy, what about your brother's health? they were not going to fess up to the fact that this was a man to being on the edge. what saved him where the medications he was taking them. i don't think you could have functioned the way he did. much of the way we feel today is attributed to his sense of history, his sense of public image, his sense of trying to control the image and a sense of friendship with journalism? >> that was a term they actually
used in those days but the interesting thing is the person who was perhaps more active in this was jackie kennedy. evening ofack on the the 22nd of november and already she was beginning to ink that jack only has two years and 10 months and robbed of the ability to be thought of as a great resident and she literally began thinking about what the library .hould look like she had this feeling since he had been robbed of the opportunity to write memoirs and do other things that she would have to go into the breach. or someone not a historian for particularly conversant it was almost a full-time thing for her for the next year. the idea about william manchester's book that she reportedly did not read it for a number of years. >> she did not read it until toer she had gone to court
prevent the publication. she finally read it and pronounced it fascinating, which it is. mention two big speeches. the civil rights speech and the american university commencement. what do they represent in terms of john f. kennedy? we do not elect presidents to manage the government. we elect presidents and heads of state to lead the nation. both he and reagan, and our lifetime, it was their rhetoric, their words, their manner that reached the american people. bob saidk to what about smaller events, nobody remembers whether lincoln balanced the budget. they are judged on two or three and usually it's a total surprise whether it is benghazi or bp and the gulf or whatnot. it's a reactive job.
>> president kennedy definitely recognized the power of words. we can all agree on that and it is true that the 1965 civil rights act was passed by lyndon johnson and we don't know whether if he had lived, if kennedy would have achieved that, but in his speech on civil rights he did frame the issue as a moral issue, and that language and that word, had incredible impact. >> those two speeches you mentioned, they were game changers. the american university speech said, we have to rethink the way that we look at the soviet union. this comes after the cuban missile crisis. he and nikita khrushchev were both so frightened by the fact they came so close to a nuclear war and kennedy was so eager after that to get the nuclear test ban treaty with the
soviets. he invited the americans do, and they got that done overnight. they had been hassling about that for years. >> when he went to berlin, the conservatives make this point. he says that something we can get along with the soviet union. let them come to berlin. but a month later he is signing the test ban treaty. the game changer on both of those is how drastic a change it is, from 1960. you would think you are listening to one of the joint chiefs of staff. he was a temper rise are on civil rights. >> and the democrats in congress. >> in 1963 he says this is a moral issue. no president has ever said that. and the cold war frame has to be rethought. within 48 hours of each other. this is quite remarkable. >> we will get right back. >> harris offered during the 1960 campaigns, took the things
that will get civil rights off the agenda. give me five minutes. that is the campaign. >> michael, you wanted to say -- >> if you wanted 148 hours that tells you a lot about his leadership, it was those 48 because if he had come in with a big landslide in 1960 with a strong position in the house and senate, he would've given the speeches on the 21st of january or said those things in the inaugural interest. intellectually it was there when he became president. but this took two and a half years because he never wanted to the a liberal martyr, he wanted the political situation to ripen. this would change domestic opinion in this country so that
americans, having been through the close call or more ready to think of a president who wanted a test ban treaty, and civil rights by the summer of 1963, when the revolution was in full swing and kennedy was able to say to the conservatives, people who were tepid about civil rights, the alternative to this is a revolution in the streets, let me at least pose a law that will take it back into the halls of government. >> let's talk about how he grew in office. he remembered from the problem with the steel business and the bay of pigs. >> absolutely. i think that was the most bitter lesson of all. but with the bay of pigs, as an interesting historical info involving the new york times, the washington bureau actually got on to the fact that the bay of pigs invasion was intending, kennedy went to the paper and asked them to withhold
publication. and they did, and after everything went to pieces, in cuba, he actually said to scotty that he wished they had gone ahead and published the piece because it would have saved him from his worst mistake in office. >> not only from the mistake but it tells you something that is so important, that operation was supposed to be secret but it got so public it was getting to reporters and editors in washington and new york, he should have said, this should be shut down. >> or there are indications he may have changed in terms of vietnam -- >> yes. this is a probability. this is like running simulations. at the end of it, john kennedy says, every word is, he said.
everything he said -- we don't have this, they will throw us out sooner or later and if i try to do this before 1964, there will be a mccarthy scare. >> i think -- nobody knows exactly what he would have done. but the whole national feeling that lyndon johnson put, i don't want to be the first american president to lose a war. that pressure would have built on kennedy as well. i don't think kandi woodcock have fought -- as far as lyndon johnson but he wasn't going to walk around -- walk away, either. >> if you take it from that point of view, kennedy keeps americans in harms way and some get killed in 1964 just so he can win the election. i am not so sure he would have done it just for that reason. but then you get to 1965.
then he wants to get his big program through congress. a lot of domestic ills. he had postponed and hopes to get reelected with a landslide in the second term. at the time he's trying to get bills through the congress, education and poverty, housing and civil rights, is that when he will withdraw from vietnam, and take on the huge burden of being told you are soft on communism and you are selling out the country. >> you're the first to put that focus on the conversation between johnson and richard russell. he is practically begging him -- and my argument is you don't leap to 65. you'd see what he has done through all of 1964. it seemed that richard russell was saying -- lyndon johnson will find a way to get out because this will be a disaster. >> let's talk about bobby kennedy and the relationship between these brothers. jack may never have been elected president if bobby kennedy was never there.
you takeequires if from that point of view is that he keeps americans in harms way, some of them get killed in 1964 just so he can get to the election and win. i'm not so sure he would have done it for that reason, but let's accept that. then you get to 1965 and he wants to get his big program through. he had post on hoping to get reelected in a landslide. 1965 is the time he's trying to on bills through congress education, poverty, housing, civil rights, is that the moment he chooses to withdraw from
vietnam and take on the huge burden of americans saying you are selling out the country and soft on communism? let's talk about the relationship between the two dem brothers. some are saying that jack may not have been nominated if bobby was not there. >> let's talk about bobby kennedy and the relationship between these brothers. jack may never have been elected president if bobby kennedy was never there. >> someone mentioned, bobby was never invited upstairs, to the private dinners. he was like a kid pressing his face against the restaurant wall. as important and as much as he trusted his brother, generally trusted his brother, john kennedy had to be in control all the time. this included with his own family, and his brother, who had some real gaps in his political
and historical knowledge. >> i think their relationship is captured in that iconic black-and-white photograph, with shadows against the window. i don't think there has ever been a president with a close advisor like bobby kennedy was to his brother. >> with a tape recorder they had long silences. i even saw this working in bobby's office after john kennedy was dead, there is a way they communicate, that you don't get as an outsider. they are all pronouns, with no proper nouns or complete sentences. they almost know where they are going. >> they don't make the point if his advice is always good. he was a hawk. >> his determination to get rid of the dell castro was, that was
a fixed idea in his head. you don't know where this would have gone, had there been more time. during the missile crisis he did play a role of looking for alternatives. >> i say he is the advisor in chief in that book. he had no chief of staff. he said to someone who chided him for making bobby attorney general, you can get political hot water in this, but he said he needed someone he could put his feet up with. he could confide and talk to bobby in candid ways. it did not mean he would follow everything he said, but bobby kennedy was a fierce hawk. >> i want to talk about temperament and intelligence. there is almost a sense of detachment. >> the fact that he almost died on several occasions. and it also argues the critical point that he first -- would not have personalized a war the way
that johnson did, but it also suggests on the -- on the domestic affairs, this would be a much less ambitious problem. he did not call for a great society. the detachment is about how much he thinks you can accomplish as the head of government. i don't think the phrase great society comes to mind. >> one thing i remember is my revered member at williams college wrote the first biography of john f. kennedy came out in 19 90. he reflected it was a lot of the same at the time. he is not someone who's at funeral strangers would cry. just kind of sent a shiver down my spine. the tears that were shed at his actual funeral collector italy, sadness that his
death is sort of unparalleled grieving. >> it was such a blow. took a promise away from the country. >> we were out there. whatever conspiracy theory one ants to believe, there was culture of assassination in the kennedy administration. particularly with mr. castro and the deaths of other people. victimrns out to be the but the man who created that culture. >> what survives is there is such a violent culture, whatever was going on with the cia or white house, we had not lost the president in 60 years and the crime rate began a rocket fall
and we would see a much more fearful country. people don't do such things. this is what was so shocking. nobody would be shocked today if a public official was shot, but back then it was difficult. >> what did they have to say? >> the washington correspondent said to him around the funeral, we will never laugh again. they said, we will laugh again, we will just never be young again. >> there will be great presidents again. michael, go ahead. >> they may not be doing a great service in the end. the potential swung away from the adoration of kennedy in this country. by the best of motives and by suggesting camelot she was setting him up for the later
revisions. >> you say intelligence does not matter, but judgment. >> this is a reactive job and the question is, what can you do? >> that raises the question. do you have to be -- word is judgment come from and is there an argument for a lot of experience. >> harry truman and barack obama. governed by and strength -- instinct with a great knowledge of history people did not know that he had. barack obama tries to do this by analysis, and what is logical, and politics is not logical. >> how do you judge it will be a good president? forget that. anytime time that you have to get there -- who is the most experienced president we have had? the judgment around the world from lyndon johnson was lacking, and helped lead us to a pretty disastrous -- >> the difference between john f. kennedy -- he went more
across the atlantic van johnson had been across the potomac. >> the difference with grandiosity. kennedy, his grandiosity was to >> most important thing about him is he did not wait his turn. he destroyed the system that would not have made him president. now in america, no one does. >> thank you all. ♪
interesting reading about these histories. none have been as dramatic as wilson's life. i do not think i know of another president during the 20th century who had a greater effect on the century and a second, i do not know of another personal story that ever unfolded in the white house as dramatic as woodrow wilson's. what was it that he did that so impacted an entire century? where to begin? if we work backwards with foreign affairs, the very foundation of 20th century now 21st-century american foreign-policy, it goes back to one speech woodrow wilson gave when he said the world must he made safe for democracy. basically, almost every policy decision since then has been based on that fundamental. wilson also instituted his
progressive agenda mostly in the first term of office. that started with basically the bedrock of our economy as well. sense, he really redefined the function of the president. he really was the great president of the 20th century that other leaders, fdr, lbj, that reagan all followed. >> where do you rank him among the presidents? >> i rank him in the top four or five residents. there was a time when everyone would have ranked him in the top four or five and in the succeeding decades he began to fall a bit out of favor ran by the end of the century he was down among the greats in the near greats.
>> he was an academic and did not come up in the rough and tumble of all it takes. >> that's accurate to appoint. he was our only phd president. he had the most meteoric rise in american history. this is a man who in 1910 as the president of a small men's college in the middle of new jersey. in 1912 is elected president of the united states. it just comes out of the blue. a greatd, he was student of american politics and american governance. the amazing thing is once he got into office, he proved to have very short elbows. he proved to be a very canny politician. >> would people make comparisons
between president obama and president wilson? the one thing that differed is the ability of wilson to play inside politics well? >> i would say they play very differently without characterizing president obama. wilson had a unique skill set that he really worked. he had a real belief in sustained dialogue. he believed the two major branches, executive and legislative branches, should cooperate. he believed they should cooperate the government. he called to give five joint sessions of congress during his presidency whenever -- 25 joint sessions of congress during his presidency. he would go down there every day not just to give a speech, but he would sit in a little room called the president's room
across the hall and he would grab them as they were walking out of the senate chamber. he would sit there and reason with them. you would have a dialogue with them. even when senators disagreed with him, they had an ongoing relationship with him. i think that is where he has really differed from president obama. >> how did the civil war affect him? >> i think it affected him deeply. he was born in 1856 in the south. he grew up in four confederate states during the war and reconstruction. he saw the devastation that happened to the south. he saw cities burned down. you saw the whole economic
collapse in that part of the country. he carried that with him for the rest of his life. that was really what was underlying his sharp resistance to getting into world war i. he fought for years to keep us out of it and ran for reelection on the slogan he would keep us out of the war. in a devastating it is. >> and when congress issued the war declaration, he broke down crying? >> he did. he gave a magnificent address. woodrow wilson was the last president to write all of his own speeches. the significant speeches come he literally sat alone in a room and did the first draft in shorthand and typing up himself and rewrote it. after that one speech, he went back to the white house and set his head down on the table and sobbed. >> because he could sense what was coming? >> he knew it was coming. he knew he had just signed the death warrants of perhaps hundreds of thousands of american boys. that devastated him. >> what did the war due to him? >> the war invigorated him as it did the u.s. they really rally us all together.
there was a great slogan that wilson urged the nation and the legislation or that politics is adjourned. for the few years we were fighting, america did adjourned politics. everyone came together and we became another nation during that time. by the time it was winding down and ended, he was again devastated. it broke his heart. he always took the rap. one of the most moving speeches he ever gave was that the american cemetery outside of paris on memorial day 1919. he basically looked at all of the graves and he said, i sent all of these boys here. i have a responsibility so the president can never send another boy to die. >> that is when he came home. >> came home and enacted a peace treaty, the 14th of which was a dream come a league of nations.
>> and his personal life and life in the white house? >> this is to me -- what interested me most at the end of the day. write a presidential biography from the inside rather than the outside. i wanted to follow a man as he grew up and into the shoes of the president. this was one of the most emotional and passionate men and i am not forgetting lincoln, who ever inhabited the oval office. he was married twice.
his first wife became a professor's wife in a college presidents wife. he trusted her implicitly. she was his greatest critic and editor. she was a lovely artist. they were in the white house for one year and she dies of kidney failure. the president is now absolutely devastated. he is alone. sinks into is to be her depression. he has three daughters. he lives in this cavernous house and can barely get out of bed as world war i has broken out. it is the strong presbyterian sense of duty that got him going every day. he met a beautiful young widow who lived in washington. he instantly fell in love with her. i think he was desperate to fall in love again. but he did and he convinced her to marry him and they didn't. it turns out that she had a great historic significance shortly after. >> which was?
wilson trying to promote his league of nations, in the middle of this great city to her, the greatest crusade any president has ever gone on, collapses. they rush him back to the white house where a few days later he suffers a stroke. they keep it a secret from the people of the united states. they keep a secret from everyone in the white house. only a handful of people really conspire to keep this from the world. during that period, you see the rise of mrs. wilson rather uneducated that really functions as the first woman president of the united states. >> how did she handle the job? >> as she would have held it as a steward. she said she did nothing her
husband would not have done. in essence, i think she served as a chief of staff. four months and a half, virtually no one saw woodrow wilson during his second term. any document that had to go before the president had to pass before mrs. wilson's eyes first. >> what access did you have that other biographers did not have? >> when he spent 13 years on a book, even when hundred years after wilson's presidency, amazingly new papers began to surface. i got access to two wonderfully personal cachet's of paper. one came forth when wilson surviving grandson died. they found trunks of papers from
the grandson's mother. there are thousands of personal letters and wilson to the daughter and a daughter to the husband. they were all talking about woodrow wilson. a lot of things flushed him out. a second cash surfaced when woodrow wilson's most intimate friend and dr. -- doctor when his last son died. they found trunks of his papers. he kept meticulous notes. >> did he introduce wilson to his second wife? >> he did. yes, he set them up. he did it in a very clever way without letting either of them know it was a set up. >> some of the criticism? >> i definitely think he was a racist because he was. if we go back 100 years to 1913 and examine where washington,
d.c., was, i would say he was a centrist in his day. he did introduce jim crow to washington. introduce segregation into federal offices. >> separate, but not equal. >> separate, but not equal. the law of the land was separate, but equal. he was inclined to give the benefit of doubt. the law of the land, that was a handful of years before wilson took office. he really did believe that the races should be integrated, but did not think the country and certainly the south was ready for it. i suggest that he did not believe segregation was -- it that if a generation were to -- he quickly realized that
separate was not equal. he did nothing about it. >> also the suppression of civil liberties. >> he suppress them during the first world war. i would say in his defense, and i certainly do not want to excuse him, but i would like to try to explain him. a lot of things were happening in the world for the first time. there was an international terrorism. there were bombs being sent to elected officials and postal offices. the president was dealing with it. it was an invisible enemy. he could not say, ok, we will attack germany. >> what was his faculties like during the time that she and the
doctor were running the white house? >> at first come his faculties were quite diminished. he suffered a stroke. >> what was the effect? >> he was paralyzed on his left side. he did not lose his ability to speak. he maintained his memories. we know more now than we did then and how it affects one's emotional life. he was making some judgments that came out of the blue that we cannot fully decipher. all of that being said, he gradually gave the occasional speech or statement. basically the last year and a half in office is pathetic. he spends watching movies every